Addition and Subtraction

We had 2 horses hitched to the carriage. Then father hitched up 2 more horses. How many horses did we have
hitched to the carriage in all?

ii. Mr. Miller bought 2 steamboat tickets on Monday for himself and his wife. Then his son's family decided they
wanted to travel as well, so Mr. Miller had to buy 4 more tickets. How many tickets did he have to buy in all?

iii. ;A team of horses and a wagon can travel about 20 miles a day. If the Grace family travels 2 days, how many
miles have they traveled?

iiii.  When Martin started his journey, the temperature was 80 degrees. Two hours later, the temperature had
dropped to 63 degrees. How many degrees had the temperature dropped?

The cost of a good quality farm harness is $2.50.  ;A better quality harness costs $3.00. How much more does
the better quality harness cost?

F2  Multiplication and Division  

i.  Mr. Richards the blacksmith has to shoe horses for the Overland Stage Company. Today he has to shoe 4
horses. Each horse has 4 hooves. How many horseshoes does Mr. Richards need?

ii.  Miller Nuttal can carry 5 barrels of flour in his wagon. If he goes to town 3 times, how many barrels of flour can
he take to the train station in all?

iii. A barrel of flour contains 196 pounds of flour. If Farmer Jones buys 3 barrels, how many pounds of flour will he
have bought?

iv. Susan walks about 3 miles an hour. If she walks for 4 hours, how far will she have gone?

v. A ticket to ride the steamboat costs $6. If Mr. Miller has to buy 9 tickets, how much will he spend?

vi.  The Overland Stage company has 32 horses. If each team contains 4 horses, how many teams does the
company own?

F3  Geometry

The Kingston family built an emigrant ark to carry them downriver. Their boat was 30 feet long and 10 feet wide.
Calculate the square footage of the boat.  (L X W)

ii. Jim the wheelwright is making some new wheels for a carriage. The radius of these wheels is 15 inches. What is
the diameter?  (radius = 1/2 diameter)  

iii. If Jim wants to put a steel band around the outside of the wheel, what is this circumference?  (Circumference =
pi X radius squared)

D. Fractions and Percentages

A horse can pull approximately 10% of its bodyweight for an 8-hour day. If Jackson the horse weighs 1200 lbs,
how much and he pull for an 8-hour days work?

ii.  1/4 of Mr. Jones wagon is filled with sacks of feed. 1/8 is filled with sacks of salt. 1/8 is used for the seat. How
much of the wagon bed is left to be filled?

E. Measurement

Horses are measured in " hands." A hand = four inches. A pony is a horse under 14.2 hands high. How tall is
this in inches?

ii. When Marvin started on his trip, the temperature was 80 degrees F.;Convert this to Celsius.

F. Click HERE to go to Science & Material Culture Study on Equines.

G.  Science: Meterology Then and Now

The science of forecasting the weather is called meterology. Today, scientists use radar to predict the weather,
but there was no radar in the 19th century. People were lucky to have a thermometer, a rain gauge or a
barometer.  Until the telegraph was invented there was even no way for people to get information quickly.

How did people back then predict the weather?  

Often they would watch the sky or the animals for clues.

You may have heard the old rhyme:
"Red sky at morning, sailor take warning. Red sky at night, sailor’s delight."

A similar verse is even found in the Bible.

2[Jesus ] answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red.   3And
in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowering. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the
face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?

People also watched the behavior of animals. My grandparents said that if the cow were lying down, it would rain.  If
animals build deep, thick burrows, the winter will be cold. If large flocks of birds gather in trees, a storm is coming.

Do you think that any of these animal sayings might be true?

Steam power
Horses vs. Horse Power
The Mississippi River: Old Man River
Robert Fulton (right) and the Steamboat
Early Steam Engines (Trains)