A. PLANNING AND ACTIVITIES
1. Field Trip: Petting Farm or Zoo
2. Planting a seed or garden
3. Weeding or hoeing : Have children try to hoe up an area. It’s hard work!
This is what settlers without a plow had to do.
4. Farm Animal Game: With plastic farm animals or pictures of farm animals, ask young children to make the
sounds the animal makes, or to name the “mother, father and baby” of each animal.
5. Gee and Haw Game ("Are you as smart as a mule?")
Oxen and other draft animals were trained to respond to the traditional commands of “Gee!”
(Right) and “Haw!” (Left). To make them walk forward, the farmer might say “Walk on” or “Gee up!”.
“Whoa” means to stop. Play this game like Red Light-Green Light. Students stand in a line in front of you,
and you give the command. This is a great way to use up excess energy.
6. Play Horse- Children in the 19th century enjoyed pretending to be horses. Companies even made and
sold toy reins. You can use a jump rope. Put it around the child being the horse’s waist and then the other
child can “drive” the horse. Children often really enjoy this, especially when the "horse" runs away.
7. “Train” your horses. Horses and mules have different “gaits” (ways of moving their legs). Although with
our 2 legs we can’t really imitate them, the students can still have fun. Make them go around in a big circle,
like lunging a horse. They can “walk” then “trot” (a bumpy, 2-beat gait. They can march quickly or bounce)
Then “canter” or “lope” (they can skip, going smoothly). Then “gallop” (run).
B. VOCABULARY (More Animal Words below)
Animal Husbandry- raising livestock
Plow- implement for breaking up or turning the soil. There were many, many different types of plows. Also
verb: to plow.
Harrow or cultivator - for working the soil and breaking up large clumps of dirt.
Sickle- short tool with curved blade for cutting or reaping
Scythe or Grain Cradle- What the images of the “Grim Reaper” carries. Long tool with
curved handle (snath) and curved blade for reaping grain. The Grain Cradle is a scythe with long wooden
“teeth” to help hold the grain.
Shock- a bundle of grain tied together
Thresh- to separate the grain from the stalks
Winnow- To separate the wheat from the bits of stalk, or chaff.
Chop- to weed (a cotton-related term)
Cotton beam or scale- simple beam used to weight sacks of cotton, etc., using weights called “peas” or
Barrel- a barrel technically contains 36 gallons; a “hogshead” contains 54 gallons. There are many other
different sizes of “barrels
Boll- the round ball of cotton on a stalk.
Orchard- a place where fruit or nuts are grown on trees.
Graft- to join together two trees, usually a well-producing variety at the top to the root of a very hardy variety,
in order to increase the yield of fruit.
Animal Husbandry- raising livestock (animals)
Dairy- a place where animals are milked. A dairy animal is one that is bred for high milk production.
Stanchion- bars that fit around an animals neck to hold it in place, as for milking.
Stable- a barn where horses are kept.
Stall- the subdivision of a stable for keeping one horse. Most stalls today are loose-boxes at least 10 X 10.
In the 19th century, many stables had mostly straight stalls in which the horse was tied to the manger.
Barn- a building where livestock, livestock food or implements are housed.
Corn Crib- a small building, usually off the ground, in which corn was stored
Carriage House- the building used for storing carriages, wagons, buggies, etc.
C1: ELEMENTARY READING
Today, most Americans live near towns or cities, but in the 19th century, most Americans lived on farms or
had grown up on farms. They were familiar with farm life and with animals. They knew how much work it took
to grow food, and they had often learned to do some farm-related work.
1) How would (or is) living on a farm different from living in a town or city? (Remember that some farms in the
past were isolated, and that travel was slower.)
2) What skills might you learn on a farm that you would not learn living in a town or city?
3)What types of jobs did people in towns and cities do to make money?
4) How did farmers make money? Why did most farmers need at least some money?
Click HERE to go to the Children's Barnyard
C2- UPPER ELEMENTARY READING Start with C1 above and continue.
Parents and Older Students may wish to read a longer article CLICK HERE (and then scroll down
Chart of Farm Animals. There are also animal pictures below, and in some of the "buildings" on
the homestead map. CLICK HERE
Most Americans lived in rural areas. Even people in towns and cities might have a garden, milk cow, pig or
*For younger children, pick out the more common animals. Older students can learn the more difficult
Chart of Some Common Farm Animals
This chart contains the general name, names of adult males and females, what the birth is called, the names
of the baby animal, juveniles and neutered males.
*- Milk goats are now often referred to as “bucks and does” rather than as “billies and nannies.” I’m not sure
how old this nomenclature is. Sometimes old books may refer to male goats as rams. Angora goats are
sometimes called “rams and ewes” possibly because they look so much like sheep.
Cattle: The male is a bull. The female is a cow who calves. A baby is a calf. A juvenile male and female are
a bull or bullock and a heifer. A neutered male is a steer. An ox is a steer that has been trained as a draft
animal. A group is usually called a herd.
Chickens: The male is a rooster. The female is a hen. A baby is a chicken or chick. A juvenile male and
female are a cockerel and a pullet. A neutered male is a capon. A group is usually called a flock. They live in
Cats: The male is a tom. The female is a queen. A baby is a kitten.
Dogs: The male is a dog. The female is a bitch who whelps. A baby is a puppy. A group is usually called a
*Don't allow children to be silly about the names of animals that today have negative meanings, such as "ass"
or "bitch". Explain to children that these are perfectly good words in the right context (for example, at a dog
show), but we do have to use discretion using these words in the general public.
Ducks: The male is a drake. The female is a hen. The baby is a duckling. A group is a flock.
Geese: The male is a gander. The female is a goose. The baby is a gosling.
Goats: Meat goat male & female are called a billy and nanny. Milk goats today are often called bucks
and does. A mother goat kids. Baby goats are kids. Neutered males are wethers. A juvenile male and
female can be called a buckling or a doeling.
Guinea: The male is a rooster and the female is a hen. The baby is a keet.
Horses: The male is a horse, stallion or stud. The female is a mare who foals. The baby is a foal. Juveniles
are colts (m) or fillies (f.) A neutered male is a gelding. A pony is a horse that is under 14.2 hands (a hand =
4”) tall. A pony is NOT a baby horse.
Rabbits: The male is a buck. The female is a doe who kindles baby kits or bunnies.
Swine/Pigs: The male is a boar. The female is a sow who pigs or farrows. The babies are piglets or pigs. A
shoat is a weanling pig. A young female is a gilt. A neutered male is a barrow or stag. A large pig is a hog.
Sheep: A male is a ram. A female is a ewe who lambs. A baby is a lamb. A neutered male is a wether.
Turkey: A male is a tom. The female is a hen. The babies are poults.
Donkey: A male is a jack, and a female is a jenny. (Don't confuse this with the Spanish Jennet.) The baby is a
Mule: A male mule is sometimes called a john, and a female is a molly. Although mules are sterile, it is still
necessary to geld male mules. In general, mules are sterile, but occasionally a mare mule has had a donkey-
like offspring. Baby mules are usually the product of a female horse and a male donkey. A Hinny is the
product of a female donkey and a male horse.
C3- Plows & Common Agricultural Equipment
The first tools that a pioneer might bring into the frontier might be merely a hoe, knife, rifle and axe. With
these, he could start building a shelter and planting a crop. As he prospered, the farmer might purchase
more agricultural equipment and more draft animals in order to plant and harvest more crops.
Plow- breaks up the ground for planting. The simplest plow was a walking plow. There were also larger plows
that allowed the farmer to ride. A sulky plow had one bottom (blade), while a gang plow had more than one
blade. Thanks to http://www.farmcollector.com/equipment/sulky-plows-gang-plows.aspx for this info! I will try
to include an illustration of a plowshare, moldboard, middle-buster, etc. later.
Harrow or cultivator - agricultural implement that breaks up ground for planting or covers seeds.
Sickle- short tool with curved (c-shaped) blade for cutting or reaping
Scythe or Grain Cradle- What the images of the “Grim Reaper” carries. Long tool with curved handle (snath)
and curved blade for reaping grain. The Grain Cradle is a scythe with long wooden “teeth” to help hold the
Shock- a bundle of grain tied together
Thresh- to separate the grain from the stalks
Chop (cotton)- to weed
Cotton beam or scale- simple beam used to weight sacks of cotton, etc., using weights called “peas” or
Cotton sack- the long cloth sack into which the picked cotton was placed.
Tow sack- a sack made of very rough burlap-type fabric. "Tow" are the short, inferior linen fibers that make a
coarse, scratchy cloth.
Barrel- contains 36 gallons; a “hogshead” contains 54 gallons. There are many other different
sizes of “barrels
Day 1) Kindness to Animals.
Proverbs 12: 10 A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast: but the tender mercies of the wicked are
The Bible tells us that the righteous person is kind to his animals. How are some ways we can be kind to our
pets and livestock?
For older students: God wants us to be kind to our animals. Do you think that spaying or neutering an animal
is kind? How is it kind?
Oldest Students: With your parent(s), discuss the differences between animals and humans. Today, many
groups teach that animals have as many rights as humans, and that to kill an animal is the same as killing a
human. Yet the Bible does not teach this. Discuss what the Bible says with your parents.
Day 2) The Wheat and the Tares
People in the Bible were very familiar with crops. One of the problems with growing wheat was a weed called
the Bearded Darnell, which looks very much like wheat in its early stages. These are the "tares" that the
Bible talks about.
Matt 13: 24 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man
which sowed good seed in his field: 25 But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the
wheat, and went his way. 26 But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the
tares also. 27 So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed
in thy field? from whence then hath it tares? 28 He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants
said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? 29 But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the
tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. 30 Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of
harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them:
but gather the wheat into my barn.
36 Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying,
Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field. 37 He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the
good seed is the Son of man; 38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but
the tares are the children of the wicked one; 39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the
end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. 40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the
fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. 41 The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall
gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; 42 And shall cast them into a
furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. 43 Then shall the righteous shine forth as the
sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.
One day Jesus will separate the wheat from the tares. Discuss with your parent(s) what this means.
Day 3) Sowing Grain
Farmers in Bible times carried bags of seed, throwing the seed out onto their fields. The seed would fall onto
Matt 13: 13 The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea side. 2 And great multitudes
were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude stood on the
shore. 3 And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow;
4 And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the fowls came and devoured them up:
5 Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they
had no deepness of earth: 6 And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root,
they withered away. 7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them:
8 But other fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, some
thirtyfold. 9 Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.
What are some of the conditions that the Bible is talking about here?
Describe people whose hearts are like the ground that these verses talk about.
Day 4) Grain of Wheat. Here is another Biblical metaphor. Jesus compares his body to a grain of wheat.
When a grain of wheat "dies" and is buried, it sprouts again and "bears much fruit."
Our bodies can also be compared with grains of wheat. Just like the grain of wheat "dies," is "buried" in the
ground and comes back to life in a different form, our earthly bodies will die, be buried and be resurrected.
John12: 23 And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified.
24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a *corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it
die, it bringeth forth much fruit. 25 He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world
shall keep it unto life eternal. (KJV)
John 12: 23 Jesus replied, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. 24 Very truly I tell you,
unless a kernel of wheat falls to the ground and dies, it remains only a single seed. But if it dies, it produces
many seeds. 25 Anyone who loves their life will lose it, while anyone who hates their life in this world will keep
it for eternal life. (NIV)
Day 5) Winnowing the Wheat
The Bible was written in a day when most people were familiar with agriculture, and many of the illustrations
Jesus used (as we've seen before) had to do with agriculture. Here, John the Baptist is describing Jesus as a
farmer who is winnowing wheat on a "threshing floor." Winnowing is separating the wheat-berries (that you
grind into flour) from the husks or "chaff." Jesus is pictured as having either some type of hand-powered fan-
to blow away the chaff- OR (more likely) a winnowing fork for tossing the wheat in the air so that the wind
could blow the chaff away.
Luke 3:16 John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I
cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and
with fire: 17 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his
garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable. (KJV)
Luke 3:16 John answered them all, “I baptize you with[b] water. But one who is more powerful than I will come,
the straps of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie. He will baptize you with[c] the Holy Spirit and fire. 17 His
winnowing fork is in his hand to clear his threshing floor and to gather the wheat into his barn, but he will burn
up the chaff with unquenchable fire.” (NIV)
Who are the "wheat" here?
Who are the chaff?
Day 6: Sowing and Reaping. You have probably heard your parents say, "You reap what you sow."
"Sowing" is planting seeds. (As opposed to "sewing" a dress.) Reaping is harvesting the grain.
Gal 6:7 Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.
8 For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the
Spirit reap life everlasting.
Some people think they can do wrong and get away with it, but Paul says that this is not true. God knows
what's going on!
If a person "sows" godly actions and tries to cultivate a godly attitude, then he will reap the results. A person
who sows discord, hatred, and ungodly actions will reap the results of that, too. This is not to say that an evil
person may not seem to prosper for a while, but in the end his evil deeds will blossom and produce fruit.
Day 7: The Wise Husbandman Animals occur throughout the Bible. Sheep and goats were very important
to the Jewish people, because these animals can live in harsh conditions and supply a number of items (wool,
meat, milk, leather, horns.)
When you have animals, you often had to get up at night or when you are tired to care for them if they are
sick or if there are new babies. Here is a beautiful passage from Proverbs that talks about a farmer taking
care of his animals so that they will produce for him.
*Be sure students understand the difference between "husband" and "husbandman." One is the spouse of a
wife, and the other cares for animals.
Proverbs: 23 Be sure you know the condition of your flocks,
give careful attention to your herds;
24 for riches do not endure forever,
and a crown is not secure for all generations.
25 When the hay is removed and new growth appears
and the grass from the hills is gathered in,
26 the lambs will provide you with clothing,
and the goats with the price of a field.
27 You will have plenty of goats’ milk to feed your family
and to nourish your female servants.
The book of Proverbs is categorized as a "wisdom" book in the Bible. It contains wise sayings that are
generally true. They are not the same as a covenant-promise from God; but are good advice. In general, if
you watch after your livestock, you will get meat, milk, and money in return. Then you will have clothes from
the wool, money for more land from the sale of animals, and milk to drink.
E1) Adjectives. Fill in an adjective for each noun.
The donkey has ____________________ ears.
The sheep has ________________________ wool.
The chick has __________________________ down.
The _______________ cow is very gentle.
James saw a _______________________ bull.
He also saw ______________________ white doves. (number)
Is that ____________________'s horse? (Possessive)
My horse's stall is the _________________ stall on the right. (Ordinal number)
E2) Adverbs. Adverbs tell about HOW something was done, when it was done, or where it was done.
The horse ran ______________________.
The donkey brayed ____________________________.
The cow shook her horns _________________________ when we came too close to her calf.
The horse stomped his hoof ______________________________ when we had to wait.
_______________________ (when?), we went for a ride on the donkey.
We will go for a ride in the goat-cart _____________________ (when?).
E3) Direct Objects. Underline the direct object in the sentence.
Star pulled the cart. (What did Star pull?)
Fido bit the ram. (What did Fido bite?)
Susan burned the bread. (Susan burned what?)
Father plowed the garden.
James sheared the ewe.
Grandpa hewed the log.
William threshed the wheat.
I ate the cookies.
Grandma plucked the goose.
E4) Indirect Objects. Indirect objects answer the question "verb to whom?"
I gave ____________________ the apple. (I gave the apple to whom?)
We brought _____________________ some cookies. (We brought some cookies to whom?)
John threw ______________________ the ball.
Mother gave _________________________ the cookies.
Susan cooked ______________________ a pie.
Jenny tossed ____________________________ the yarn.
Marshall fetched ________________________ the candle.
E5) Verbs Of Being
Not all verbs are "action" verbs. Some verbs are verbs of being. These verbs include the verbs is, am, are,
was, were, being, being, been. In these sentences, underline the verb of being OR the action verb.
a) I am a boy.
b. She is a girl.
c) Jenny jumped the rope.
d) He is a horse.
e) We were boys together.
f) The bull raged.
g) Euphrosine sang.
h) Jake was our donkey.
i) Star is a pony.
j) Mother made the dress.
g) Spot and Fido are dogs.
F1) Addition and Subtraction.
a) We have 4 ewes. We have 3 lambs. We have 2 rams. How many sheep do we have in all?
b) Father has 10 cows. He has 7 calves. How many is this in all?
c) Mr. Smith has 5 bay horses. He has 3 gray horses and 8 black horses. How many horses does he have in
Remember place value: Thousands, Hundreds Tens Ones (Units)
d) Circle the number in the Tens place: 456 872 1009
e) Circle the number in the hundreds place: 503 1834 3902
f) Circle the number in the ones place: 1445 3 234 32
g) 2 + 3 = _____________ 20 + 30 = ______________ 200 + 300 = _____________
h) 2 + 3 = ________________ 20 + 3 ______________ 200 + 3 = __________________
You may want to write these problems vertically to show the difference.
i) Mr. Jones sold a team (2) of gray mules. Before he sold that team, he had 16 mules. How many mules does
he have now?
j) We picked 5 bushels of peas yesterday. We sold 4 bushels. How many bushels are left?
k) Mr. Pioneer had 3 teams of oxen. Count by 2's to find out how many oxen he had.
l) Can you count by 2's to 100?
m) The auction barn sold 25 horses last week, 15 horses the week before, and 31 horses this week. How
many did they sell in all?
F2) Multiplication and Division
a) We have 4 pens of sheep. We have 4 sheep in each pen. How many sheep do we have in all?
b) We have 7 pens of chickens. We have 4 chickens in each pen. How many chickens do we have in all?
c) We have 10 hens. Each hen has 5 chicks. How many chicks do we have in all?
d) James has 5 goats. Each goat has four hooves. How many hooves does James have to trim?
e) Mrs. Hanes has a flock of 20 chickens. She wants to divide them in half. How many chickens would be in
each flock? (To divide in half, divide by 2.)
f) Mr. Rust has a herd of 44 horses. He wants to give his son half of the horses. How many horses will the
g) Father sent William to the barn with a bucket of feed. In the bucket are 8 scoops of corn. There are 4 cows
in the barn. How many scoops will each cow get, if each cow gets the same amount?
h) Father bought 7 sacks of feed. Each sack cost $3. How much did Father spend?
i) Mother sold eggs for 3c a dozen. She sold 10 dozen eggs. How much money did she make?
k) Mr. Reeves sells carriages. He sold 5 carriages last month. Each carriage sold for $12.00. How much did
l) Mr. Reeves also sold 4 heavy wagons last month. Each wagon sold for $14.75. How much money did he
m) Divide 5832 by 3.
n) Divide 532 by 31.
o) Multiply 325 X 782
a) Mrs. Dales designed a garden. The garden was 125 feet long and 46 feet wide. What is the total area of
b) A normal horse stall today is 10' X 10'. A stall for a larger horse is 12' X 12'. How many MORE square
feet of space does a horse have in a 12 X 12 stall? (This is a 2-part problem)
c) Jeremy is planning a new stable for his horses. On one side he will have 4 12 X 12 stalls for his draft
horses. On the other side, he will have stalls for his other horses and a tack room. What is the MINIMUM
length the stable can be.
d) Mr. Hughes has a large herd of cattle. He has a large water trough that is 6 feet long, 1.5' wide, and 1.3'
tall. What is the VOLUME of this trough?
e) Many dairy farms have large, cylindrical silos to store feed. What formula would you use to determine the
volume of a cylinder shape like a silo?
f) James' pony is 48" tall. How many feet is this?
The United States and Russia produce a great deal of wheat. Can you find Russia on a map?
Goats are mountain animals and love to climb. What are some of the major mountain ranges of the world?
Look in an atlas to find out.
H. SCIENCE: FARM ANIMALS
Click HERE to go to the Children's Barnyard
|LESSON VI MEN'S WORK AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
|Technological improvements in farm equipment. (Left) Walking plow (Right) Large cultivator. There
were also large plows on which the farmer could ride.
|Left: Flail for separating the grain from the stalks. This process is called threshing. Right: Mechanical
Left: Boy reaping grain with a sickle, also called a grass hook. Right: A scythe (sigh-thuh), a larger
implement with a very long, curved blade on a curved handle called a snath. With a row of long wooden
teeth that ran parallel to the blade, the scythe became a grain cradle.
H2) SCIENCE RESEARCH - WHEAT
Wheat is often called the "staff of life," because it has been the basis of many human diets.
Research: Where is wheat grown today?
What are some of the different varieties of wheat?
What diseases and pests strike wheat?
What conditions does wheat need to grow?
How was wheat threshed before the threshing machine?
What machinery is used to raise wheat today?
What types of wheat are used for what products? (pasta, bread, etc.)
H3) There are an unlimited possibilities for research projects in this section, from research on animals to
research on historical farm equipment to modern genetic engineering of crops. The student can pick a
subject that interests him or her.
A mule, hooked up and ready to go to the
field to plow.
Breaking up new ground with mules or oxen
was extremely heavy work, and something
that no one looked forward to doing.
Men usually did the heavy outdoor work on
The curved bar is a cotton scale; hanging from it is one of its weights, called a
"poise." Where I live (NW La./ East Texas) , these weights were sometimes called
"peas." This is interesting linguistically, because in French, "pois" translates to "pea."
Scales like this were used to weigh sacks of cotton when the workers came in from the
Behind the scale are two adze-heads with a broadax head in the middle.
Today we can winnow wheat in front of a fan, but it's still
hard work! Sarah found out that you get a little wheat after
a lot of threshing and winnowing!
During lambing and kidding season, the wise farmer
was often up to check the mother animal and her new
Here are two new-born Shetland lambs with their