The Woods

Provide:

Lumber for shelters & fences
Wood products for repairs, tool handles,
implements, gum pails, bee gums, dugout
canoes, rafts, stoneboats, ox yokes, looms,
toys, corn-husk mops, and lots more.

Cord wood for heating, cooking, washing
clothing

Wood for smoking meat

*Sawdust for packing ice

Twigs for brooms

Branches for basket-making

Ashes from hard-wood are used to make lye
for cleaning and soap-making

Game Animals that provide meat, horns,
feathers, skins, fur, brains (for tanning)
and/or leather

Edible wild berries, nuts, fruits & plants

Dyestuffs from bark, roots, leaves

Oak Bark for Tannin

Shelter for Animals

Forage for feral and semi-feral animals
(hogs, goats)

Medicinal Plants & Herbs

*Salt, in some areas

Recreation

Maple Syrup, in some regions

SWINE

*May be feral, eating
acorns, slop fed with
scraps, or corn-fed.

Provide Meat
Lard for Cooking or Soap
Pigskin
General Waste Disposal
Snake Control
$ Shoats for Sale $
The  Bees
Receive- A Safe Hive,
Convenient Pollen

Provide Pollination & Honey

The Garden

Receives:
Manure & Compost,
Cultivation

Provides:

Food for the Human
Family & Scraps for the
Animals

Some Medicinal Plants
and Herbs

Pollen for the Bees

Food for the Worms

Hops for Yeast-Making

Gourds for drinking
vessels & "dishes"


THE ORCHARD

Provides Fruit:
Dried, Canned, Jellies,
Pectin, Wine, Cider, etc.

Scraps for the Animals

Pollen for Bees
Fruit-Wood for Smoking
CHICKENS & POULTRY
Provide
$ Eggs $
Meat
Insect Control
Feathers for Mattresses
& Pillows
Quill Pens

SHEEP
Provide:   
Meat  
Wool for Clothing
Horn
Sheep-skin
*Milk  
$ Lambs
Manure


GOATS
Provide
Meat
Dairy Products
Kidskin
$ Kids
Weed & Brush Control
*Fiber (Mohair &
Cashmere)
Manure
CATTLE

Provide:
Milk & Dairy Products &
Meat for Humans and
Pigs
Rennet for
Cheese-making
Marrow from Bones
Tallow for Candles
Hooves for Gelatin
Leather
Horns for Powder-Horns
Draft-Power (Oxen)- for
heavy plowing & logging
$ Calves for Sale $
Manure for Fertilizer



HORSES,
MULES,
DONKEYS

Provide:
Draft-Power and speed
for increased food
production, logging

Transportation for
humans & goods,

$ Foals for Sale $
Manure for Fertilizer
The Human Family

PROVIDES
Knowledge &  Management
Food, Water, & Medical Care
Shelter
Labor
Capital
Protection


RECEIVES (a Partial List)

Foodstuffs from the Garden, Orchard,
Animals, Pond and Woods

Water
Beverages (milk, wine, cider)

$ from Cash-Crops

Cloth & Clothing from Wool, Cotton, Flax
(natural dyes)

Wood for Shelters, Tools, Heating and
Equipment

Tallow for Candles

Lard for cooking and soap-making

Leather for clothing, shoes, harness,
hinges, repair, etc.

Faster Transportation & Draft-Power

Feather Stuffing

Materials for Basket-Making
The Homestead/Farm
as a Model of Integrated Production &
Sustainability


THE FIELDS

Receive: Manure &
Cultivation

Provide:

Grain for Human &
Animal Feed
Grain-Straw for animal
bedding, making hats.

Corn husks for mops &
mattresses

*Flax for linen &
candle-wicks

Cotton for $, fabric and
quilt batting

Hay for animals &
Stuffing Mattresses

$Some truck-crops $
Cash Crops $

*Tobacco
*Sugar Cane for syrup &
sugar
*Rice
*Indigo for dying fabric

Possibly Rocks (LOL) for
Fence-Building
*RABBITS

Provide
Meat
Fur
$ Kits $


POND OR
CREEK
Receives (modern)
*Fish Stocking

PROVIDES
Water
*Ice, in certain areas.
Fish & Invertebrates
Recreation
Reeds for Basket-Making
Some Edible Plants
Home for Waterfowl
Creek: Power for a water-mill

SPRING
Provides:
Water, possibly cool enough
for preserving milk
*The Worm-Bed

Receives: Food Scraps
Provides: Garden Cultivation
Recreation (Fishing)
* Indicates an animal or product that might not
have been used on the traditional homestead,
but may be incorporated today, or in certain
ethnic cultures.

$ indicates a cash-crop or product
THE LOCAL COMMUNITY, TRADERS & ARTISANS

Most essential purchased items for the early homesteader.

           Iron Items (horseshoes, ax, hoe, knife)
           Salt for cooking and preserving meat if there were no salt-works
nearby.
           Firearm - black-powder, lead for bullets, bullet mold
           Sewing Needles
Basic Cookware (frying pan,  dutch oven, utensils)
           Saltpeter for preserving meat
           *Seeds (the homesteader had to bring these with him, although later
farmers could order them, as well as fruit trees, flowers, etc.)


Not absolutely essential, but commonly-purchased Items from a store
or local artisan or peddler
          
*Shoes & Boots (other than moccasins)
*Certain Cloth and Clothing Items
*Barrels & Cooper-made wooden buckets, churns
*Dishes (metal or pottery)
*Crock-Churns, Crocks, Kitchen Supplies
*Tinware, such as milk pans
*Steel Knitting Needles for sock-making
*Plows and other farming equipment
*Stoves, if using other than fireplace for heating/cooking
*Lamps; whale-oil, coal-oil, or kerosene
*Writing Pen, Paper, Ink (although ink can be made from natural items and
early settlers might use a quill)
*Saddles, bits, harness, iron for ox-yokes, single-trees, etc.
*Chimney crane for open-hearth cooking
*Iron pot used for soap-making, washing, etc.
*Washboard (used later in the 19th Century- early settlers beat their clothing
with a paddle to get them clean)
*Professionally made wagon, cart or other vehicle
*Carders & Spinning Wheel  (Looms appear to have often been made at
home.)
*Candle Holders, Rush-light holders, Pine-knot holders
*Chains & Ropes
*Watches & Clocks
*Buckles
*Hair Brushes   
*Certain Alcohol Products     
*Certain musical instruments
*Coffee beans and tea leaves
*Soap and Candles could be purchased, but the thrifty housewife made her
own if possible.
*Perhaps a small mirror


Later & Luxury Items
*Larger and more advanced agricultural machinery
*Professional Medical Care
*Carriages
*Sewing Machines
*More Kitchen-ware
*Fine China
*Decorative Items
*Purchased Furniture
*Heating Stoves
*Canning Supplies
*Books, Magazines & Newspapers
*Education
*Commercially made clothing & hats
*Chemicals
*Patent Medicines for humans and animals
*Unusual & Exotic Cooking ingredients: isinglass, nutmegs, canned foods,
cheeses, rosewater, flavorings, cocoa, vanilla beans
*Toys and Entertainment Items (Stereoscopes)
*Embroidery and artistic supplies
*Well-Pumps
*Bathtubs
*Pianos, Harps, other musical instruments
*Large Mirrors
*Photographs

           
DOGS

Provide: Protection,  
increased hunting ability,
herding ability
CATS

Provide: Rodent Control
in Grain & Foodstuffs
A FEW NOTES

At certain times and in some
areas, urine (from animals or
humans) was used for
scouring wool. This is NOT
something you want to try
today.

Saltpeter supposedly can be
made from animal manure,
but that's another thing I
wouldn't be brave enough to
try.

Lye, made from hardwood
ashes leached with water,
was used for cleaning,
washing, soap-making, and
making corn into hominy.

Yeast could be made from
hops & potatoes, or the
housewife could keep a
sourdough starter going all
the time.

Pectin for jelly-making can
be made from apples.